Philip II and Alexander the Great: Father and Son, Lives and Afterlives

The careers of Philip II and his son Alexander the nice (III) have been interlocked in innumerable methods: Philip II centralized historic Macedonia, created a military of extraordinary ability and suppleness, got here to dominate the Greek peninsula, and deliberate the invasion of the Persian Empire with a mixed Graeco-Macedonian strength, however it used to be Alexander who truly led the invading forces, defeated the nice Persian Empire, took his military to the borders of recent India, and created a monarchy and empire that, regardless of its fragmentation, formed the political, cultural, and spiritual international of the Hellenistic period. Alexander drove the engine his father had outfitted, yet had he now not performed so, Philip's achievements may have proved as ephemeral as had these of such a lot of previous Macedonian rulers. nonetheless, a few students think that Alexander performed a job, direct or oblique, within the homicide of his father, in order that he may lead the day trip to Asia that his father had geared up. in brief, it really is obscure or examine one with out contemplating the opposite. This number of formerly unpublished articles appears to be like on the careers and influence of pop and son jointly. the various articles contemplate just one of the Macedonian rulers even though such a lot care for either, and with the connection, real or imagined, among the 2. the amount will comprise articles on army and political background but in addition articles that examine the self-generated public pictures of Philip and Alexander, the counter photos created through their enemies, and a bunch that examine how later classes understood them, concluding with the Hollywood depiction of the connection. regardless of the plethora of accrued works that take care of Philip and Alexander, this quantity offers to make a real contribution to the sector via focusing particularly on their courting to 1 another.

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24. 1). as well as delivering better flexibility in events except fixed infantry battles, the combo of hoplites and pikemen had tactical merits. whereas “nothing may face up to the frontal attack of those pikemen,” it used to be at risk of assault, particularly at the flanks (Polyb. 18. 29. 1). As with the later Swiss pikemen,42 the German Landsnechts,43 and the Spanish tercios, different devices safe the lads sporting the lengthy lances. At Magnesia, the sarisa phalanx of Antiochus, although it used to be drawn up in a sq. formation, 86 PHILIP AND ALEXANDER AT warfare turned weak while its helping troops have been stripped away (App. Syr. 6. 35). Antiochus had basically cavalry and light-armed infantry to guard his pikemen. The Swiss, in help in their pikemen, hired troops outfitted with halberds and squaddies armed with a two-handed sword. forty four Later, those halberdiers have been changed largely through troops wearing arquebuses, and nonetheless later muskets, and the German Landsnechts and the Spanish tercios from their starting used males sporting primitive firearms to guard the pikemen, and in addition to assault the enemy’s flanks,45 the latter an obligation additionally conducted by means of the Swiss halberdiers. also, those different infantry devices got here into play while the phalanx of pikes had damaged the integrity of the opposing infantry formation. relating to the Swiss, these infantrymen built with halberds and two-handed swords may then input the fray such a lot successfully. but, the pikemen anchored the road and have been serious to victory in any set conflict good into the 17th century. forty six On safeguard those pikemen have been essentially invulnerable to attack by way of cavalry or infantry, and on offense, because the results of general perform and a well-cultivated esprit de corps, they can preserve formation whereas “steam-rolling” their rivals. forty seven All commentators marveled on the velocity of the onslaught of the Swiss pikemen. forty eight via constructing a robust education routine, they turned masters of dealing with the lengthy pike on maneuvers and in strive against. Such education can be obvious within the new Macedonian infantry created by way of Philip II (Diod. sixteen. three. 1–2: Polyaen. four. 2. 10, 19). Alexander, in his Balkan crusade of 335, had the Macedonian phalanx execute a few complex strikes, demonstrating that those Macedonians had built an services equivalent to that in their later Swiss equivalents (Arr. Anab. 1. 6. 2–3). The mixed use of hoplites and pikemen might be visible in an research of the conflict at Paraetacene among the forces of Antigonus and Eumenes. For this conflict, Diodorus (19. 27. 1–30. 10), most likely following the account of an eyewitness, Hieronymus of Cardia,49 is particularly particular in his description of the opposing phalanxes, aside from light-armed infantry, which he has passed over. 50 Eumenes’ heavy infantry is defined as from left to correct, six thousand mercenaries, five thousand males of all races “armed within the Macedonian manner,” the “argyraspids” (Silver shields), and the 3 thousand hypaspists (Diod.

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